Taking into account physiology and all other aspects of exercise, it becomes clear how much (volume) and how often (frequency) you should be training.
Progressive overload is the process of gradually increasing stress loads, pushing your body beyond its comfort zone by overloading your physical systems.
Periodization and cycles have become an important principle for continuing progression, and to ward off stagnation, boredom, and burn-out.
While exercise with short rest periods will generate high metabolic stress, short rest periods might not be as useful for developing strength or power.
There isn't a 'one size fits all' for recovery time, but the general consensus is about 48 hours of recovery time per muscle group after exercise.